Peacenik Santa Cruz Makes War on Homeless Addicts

By Ryan Boysen and Ardalan Raghian 07/08/13

A once-tolerant California beach town has become the front line of clashing attitudes to homeless addicts and used syringes. Quality-of-life advocates are on the attack—and needle exchanges are the first target.

"Safe and Clean" march; used syringes photo via

Santa Cruz, a popular beachfront vacation spot on California’s central coast with an outsized reputation for great surfing and progressive politics, has a drug problem. But the problem goes deeper than the drugs themselves.

In January, the city council forced the closure of a syringe exchange that had provided IV-drug users with clean works for more than 20 years. A rising wave of public outrage at used syringes and metal “cookers” littering local parks, playgrounds and beaches triggered the shutdown—the flashpoint in a contentious debate that has been unfolding in Santa Cruz for nearly a year.

Homeless vets at sunset on outskirts of town / Photo via

“This needle exchange episode has been as much a question of perception as reality,” said Steve Pleich, a local lawyer who wrote the grant that first got the exchange—operated by the grass-roots group Street Outreach Supporters (SOS)—up and running.

At the heart of that question are two competing narratives over the causes of, and solutions to, a perceived deterioration in Santa Cruz’s safety and serenity.

The excess of used needles was more than a public health problem, however. Ever since the ‘60s, this city 80 miles south of San Francisco has been a counter-cultural haven amid the redwoods, attracting alternative lifestyle types, including anti-war army veterans and other activists, who put down roots. Students come for its prestigious University of California campus, and drug users for its tolerant policies and policing. Santa Cruz was a pioneer in legalizing medical marijuana.

But angry residents say that Surf City’s quality of life his being spoiled by the influx of the state’s heroin addicts and homeless people. Many have mental illness as well as addictions. The community of 62,000 residents has five times the national average of homeless people. And according to the local police department, 40% of all the calls they receive relate to homeless people involved in break-ins, robberies and general public nuisances. 

"These hard-core addicts have to support their habit, and they are not doing it by panhandling," said Santa Cruz’s deputy police chief Rick Martinez at a city council meeting in March. "They are doing it by committing crime." Advocates for the homeless argue that only a small segment of this population is linked to the alleged crimes.

Santa Cruz police are kept busy / Photo via

Over the past 18 months, five murders, including those of a local businesswoman downtown at noon (allegedly by a mentally ill homeless man) and two policeman (allegedly by a mentally ill veteran) moved many residents to fury. The SOS needle exchange became the focus of that fury.

“People were talking about poisoning the homeless, lighting their RVs on fire, beating them up at night." 

One case of an accidental needle prick—a boy playing on the beach—has been reported, according to the Santa Cruz Sentinel. Although risk of HIV infection is virtually nil once the virus is exposed to air, the hepatitis C virus can remain active for up to four days. Either way, the medical care is arduous, including a month of anti-HIV drugs as post-exposure prevention (PEP); no PEP exists for hepatitis C.

But stray syringes are the exception for a program with a long track record of effectively combating HIV and hepatitis C, which are transmitted by sharing contaminated needles, supporters say. The SOS van distributed, on average, 10,000 clean needles a month, reportedly disposing of hundreds of thousands a year. Needle users make up 12% of new HIV cases in the county, compared with 20% statewide, said Giang Nguyen, director of the county’s Health Services Agency (HSA).

Ironically, the local man largely responsible for igniting the debate over the needle exchange is a vocal supporter of it. “I am 100% for needle exchange,” T.J. Magallanes told Santa Cruz Patch. “But I feel that if we make needles available, we need to make rehab available. We have not been treating addiction as a medical condition. It’s being treated as a crime. As long as it’s being treated as a crime, we’re not going to solve the problem."

Magallanes founded a group called the Clean Team in December, in response to what he saw as an epidemic of trash filling public waterways and the city’s unwillingness to tackle the problem. “I was appalled,” Magallanes said. “I was like, ‘If our city is too scared or too lazy to take care of this obvious public health and safety issue, I’m gonna do it myself.'”

Magallanes, a contractor by trade, and several friends donned HAZMAT suits and rappelled down cliffs at a local beach for their first cleanup operation. In one day they removed three and half tons of garbage. The Clean Team quickly attracted hundreds of residents for larger public cleanups. After finding several hundred used needles during the cleanups, Magallanes spearheaded the issue.

“When I spoke [at the city council meeting] I brought a big handful of needles and set them down on the podium before I started to talk,” Magallanes said. “I think that’s where the needle debate started to shake up in Santa Cruz.”

Take Back Santa Cruz (TBSC), founded in 2009 and dedicated to fighting crime, added its voice to a chorus of concerned citizens calling for a shutdown of the SOS needle exchange. After a series of additional city council meetings about the issue, the city engineered the shutdown of the mobile needle-exchange van from a parking lot a short walk from downtown.

That left Street Outreach Supporters with one exchange, at the HSA building. SOS continued to operate it until May 1, when HSA took over amid demands from the public for increased oversight.

“It seemed like [the closure of the SOS exchange] was very abrupt,” said Lisa Hernandez, MD, MPH, who became HSA’s county health officer in charge of the needle exchange less than a week after the shutdown. “There wasn’t much notification.”

While the full effects of the changes aren’t yet apparent, she said, the outcome has been mixed. “I think the intravenous drug user community is facing more scrutiny and increased negative sentiment from the community,” Hernandez said in an interview in mid-May. “They may be feeling a bit more on the fringe of society than they already felt.”

At the same time, she said, county public health workers have been able to extend the hours of the syringe swap, doubling SOS’s two-hour weekday to four hours. HSA has also continued the home delivery service, in addition to setting up two sharp boxes, safe drop-off spots for used needles.

Still, Pleich said that the adverse consequences of the change in location are hard to overstate. Compared to SOS’s former location, in a parking lot a short walk from downtown Santa Cruz, the HSA’s exchange is about two and a half miles away. Three weeks after the closure, HSA director Giang Nguyen reported a 38% decrease in the number of exchange users.

Pleich worries that until another exchange is opened in Santa Cruz’s urban core, the needle exchange program will never be as effective as it once was. “I think when we look at the stats in 2014, you’re going to find less needles being exchanged, more needle litter in the community and more transmission of HIV and hepatitis C,” he said. “Healthcare costs will skyrocket.”

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