We Need Harm Reduction for All Drugs, Not Just Opioids

By Olivia Pennelle 09/30/19

While we've made great strides with harm reduction for people who use opioids, we're slow to provide non-abstinence-based treatment for people who use other drugs.

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Our approach to recovery has been too one-dimensional. © Kreangkrai Indarodom | Dreamstime.com

A quick glance at the news reveals the catastrophic effects of opioids across the nation: around 120 people a day die from opioid-related overdoses. It’s so devastating that the nation is calling it an opioid epidemic. Yet even as we watch this tragedy unfold, we’re missing the point.

By focusing exclusively on opioids, we’re overlooking the harm caused by other deadly drugs. How can we highlight harm reduction resources if we only focus our efforts on people who use one class of drug?

The Problem with the Opioid “Epidemic”

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 700,000 people died from a drug overdose between 1999 and 2017. Sixty-eight percent of those deaths in 2017 involved an opioid — approximately 70,200. However, that’s not the 100 percent that the “epidemic” coverage would have us believe.

While I’m not arguing that the opioid-related deaths shouldn’t be covered — they should! — I am saying the problem with zeroing in on the opioid epidemic is that we are focusing too narrowly on the harms caused by one drug and are blinding ourselves to the impact of other deadly drugs. We should be reporting on those, too.

A more accurate picture of drug-related deaths in 2017, according to the CDC, looks like this:

  • Alcohol was responsible for the deaths of 88,000 people
  • Cocaine misuse killed 13,942 people
  • Benzodiazepine misuse was responsible for 11,537 deaths
  • Psychostimulant misuse, including methamphetamines, was responsible for 10,333 deaths.

Those aren’t insignificant numbers, so why are they being overlooked? I asked recovery activist Brooke Feldman for her perspective.

"The sensationalized and narrow focus on opioids fails to account for the fact that people who develop an opioid use disorder typically used other drugs before and alongside opioids,” Feldman said. “So, we really have a polysubstance use situation, not merely an opioid use situation.”

She continues, “Focusing on opioids only had led to the erection of an opioid-only infrastructure that will be useless for the next great drug binge and is barely relevant to address the deadliest drug used, which is alcohol.”

The Deadliest Drug: Alcohol

Alcohol is responsible for more deaths than any other drug. But we overlook it for two reasons: because it’s legal, and because it’s a socially acceptable drug. Not only that, but advertising actively promotes its use — you only have to look on Instagram or Etsy to see how widely excessive use of alcohol is normalized — especially among mothers and millennials. These advertisers have been smart to market alcohol as a means of self-care — encouraging drinking to help unwind from the stresses of the week — and as a means of coping with motherhood. 

Social media reinforces the message that alcohol is a tool to cope with stress and something that should be paired with our favorite stress-relieving activities, like yoga. Captions on Instagram read like “Vino and vinyasa,” “Mommy’s medicine,” “Mommy juice,” “It’s wine o’clock,” “Surviving motherhood one bottle at a time,” and “When being an adult starts to get you down, just remember that now you can buy wine whenever you want.”

Perhaps what is most insidious about alcohol is that it heavily impacts marginalized and oppressed communities. For example, Black women over 45 are the fastest-growing population with alcohol use disorder. And the LGBTQ+ community is 18 percent more likely to have alcohol use disorder than the general population.

Alcohol aside, looking at the harm done by other drugs, we can see that opioids are no longer the leading cause of drug-related death in some states. In Oregon, statistics show, deaths related to meth outnumber those that involve one of the most common opioids, heroin. In fact, there has been a threefold increase in meth-related deaths over the last ten years, despite the restriction on pseudoephedrine products, which now require a prescription. 

Similarly, in Missouri, which was ground zero for home-based meth labs 20 years ago, the recent spotlight on opioids has overshadowed an influx of a stronger, purer kind of methamphetamine. Deaths related to the new and improved drug are on the rise.

Oregon’s state medical examiner Karen Gunson speaks to this disparity of focusing on opioids over other deaths and the damage that those other drugs cause. "Opioids are pretty lethal and can cause death by themselves, but meth is insidious. It kills you in stages and it affects the fabric of society more than opioids. It just doesn't kill people. It is chaos itself."

Abstinence Is Not Attainable for Everyone

Our approach to recovery has been too one-dimensional, stating that complete abstinence is the goal. But this perspective is outdated. Abstinence isn’t attainable for everyone. If it were, then more people would be in recovery. However, harm reduction is attainable. It reduces deaths, treats medical conditions related to drug use, reduces the transmission of diseases, and provides options for treatment services. In fact, people who use safe injection sites are four times more likely to access treatment.

“Whether it is with problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, methamphetamine, etc. use, centering harm-reduction principles and practices would likely engage more people than an abysmal 1 out of 10 people who could use but do not receive SUD (Substance Use Disorder) treatment,” Feldman explains. “Requiring immediate and total abstinence rather than seeking to address overall well-being and quality of life concerns is a barrier to engagement — and sadly, it is placing the focus more on symptom reduction than it is on what is causing the symptom of chaotic drug use in the first place.”

Harm Reduction for All Drugs Means Fewer Deaths

Our focus on the opioid crisis has helped improve harm reduction resources — like the increased availability of naloxone to reverse overdoses, and the more accepted use of pharmacotherapy and medication-assisted treatment (which has now been endorsed as a primary treatment by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration), and some safe injection sites — but it has also meant we aren’t concentrating as much on research, funding, and education devoted to harm reduction practices for other harmful drugs. The result is that we have fewer resources and less awareness when it comes to keeping people who use non-opioid drugs safe.

We need to look at reducing harm across the spectrum of drug use to reduce all deaths. More safe usage sites, clean tools, safe disposal bins, medical assistance, education, referral to other support services, and access to pharmacotherapy (including drugs to treat or mitigate harms of alcohol use disorder and the development of new medications for help with other substances). Specialized treatment other than abstinence should be accessible for people who use all drugs — not just opioids. 

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Located in Portland, OR, Olivia Pennelle (Liv) is an experienced writer, journalist, and coach. She is the founder of the popular site Liv’s Recovery Kitchen, a site dedicated to helping people flourish in their recovery. Liv is passionate about challenging limiting mentalities and empowering others to direct their own lives, health, and recovery. You can find her articles across the web on podcasts and addiction recovery websites, including Recovery.org, Workit Health, Ravishly, Recovery Campus, and The Recovery Village. Liv was recently featured in VICE. Find Liv on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn

Liv also co-hosts a podcast — Breaking Free: Your Recovery. Your Way. Listen here.

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