The Sunshine State long had a reputation as the country's "pill mill" capital, but a report released today suggests that a crackdown on Rx drug abuse may be working. According to figures released by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement and Attorney General Pam Bondi, statewide deaths caused by prescription drug use fell 6%—from 2,710 in 2010, to 2,539 in 2011. This represents the first drop in over a decade and is being credited to Florida's efforts to combat Rx drug abuse through Drug Enforcement Strike Force teams. Since May 2011, the teams have reportedly made 3,390 arrests (including 61 doctors), closed 254 clinics, and seized 785,295 pharmaceutical pills, 106 vehicles, 530 weapons and $9,899,668. “Within two years of establishing our prescription drug abuse efforts, Florida has seen a decrease in prescription drug deaths for the first time in nearly a decade,” says Attorney General Bondi. "We are saving lives, and we will remain vigilant in our efforts to end prescription drug abuse in Florida." The welcome drop in deaths may also be a local manifestation of a nationwide trend; a recent SAMHSA survey indicated that prescription drug abuse fell overall in 2011, after surging throughout the previous decade, and that young adults accounted for most of this decline.
If a major study suggested that smoking marijuana not only doesn't cause lung cancer but may even reduce its incidence among those who smoke tobacco, you'd assume it would cause something of a media sensation. Well, it didn’t. A fascinating AlterNet article highlights how the mainstream media completely ignored the startling 2005 findings by Donald Tashkin, professor of pulmonology at UCLA’s David Geffen School of Medicine.
Tashkin, who will discuss his past findings and current research at a University of California San Francisco doctors' course tomorrow, doesn’t fit the lazy stereotype of a marijuana advocate. His pioneering work in the 1970s first identified the toxic compounds in pot smoke, and his lab was the first to report that one of tobacco’s most carcinogenic components—benzpyrene—is prevalent in marijuana smoke too. Tashkin’s data, showing that marijuana smokers were more likely to cough, wheeze and produce sputum than non-users was widely propagated to scare people away from smoking pot. His work made him a darling of the government's National Institute of Drug Abuse, which seized on his findings; NIDA then gave Tashkin a large grant to conduct a widespread, population-based study to prove beyond doubt that long-term marijuana use increases your risk of lung cancer.
But the annoying thing about science—as Richard Nixon learned when he ordered an investigation of marijuana risks back in 1972—is that sometimes it tells you things you don’t want to hear. Tashkin’s findings were the opposite of what NIDA expected. His work indicated that increased pot use alone, despite causing some damage to respiratory cells, doesn't increase the risk of lung and pharyngeal cancer. Tobacco smokers, in contrast, were found to be at a greater risk the more they smoked. Amazingly, people in Tashkin's control group, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana, were found to be at slightly lower risk than their tobacco-only counterparts.
The startling implication was that something in marijuana stops damaged cells from becoming malignant: Tashkin theorized an anti-proliferative effect of THC, which has been previously observed in cell-culture systems and animal models of brain, breast, prostate, and lung cancer. THC has been shown to promote known apoptosis (damaged cells die instead of reproducing) and to counter angiogenesis (the process of blood-vessel formation, which is a requirement of tumor growth). Tashkin thought other antioxidants in cannabis may also help counter malignancy.
It’s no surprise that a pro-prohibition institution like NIDA chose not to publicize this report. But why did mainstream media look the other way when Tashkin’s findings emerged in 2005? They did the same in 2009, when Tashkin went public to counter a New Zealand study, claiming that marijuana increases the risk of lung cancer, which he called “statistical sleight of hand.” A very small sample size didn't stop it receiving far wider publicity at the time than Taskin's study. It seems that marijuana scare stories simply sell.
Oscar-winning actor Denzel Washington plays an alcoholic, cocaine-snorting airline pilot in his new film, Flight, which premiered last night in LA. His character, who "lies, manipulates people, [and] drinks too much," successfully lands a plane in a storm and is revered as a hero—until it's discovered that he was heavily intoxicated during the landing. "He does try for the first two or three days right after the crash, to not drink," explains the actor. "Then when he finds out what the consequences are, he walks unfortunately right past a bar. One leads to 100." Washington hopes his character's struggles—which are hardly unknown among real-life pilots—will resonate with anyone touched by addiction, and "spark different conversation" from some of his other work. The film features recovery, too—both on and off the screen. The pilot's friend and drug dealer is a recovering heroin addict played by John Goodman, who reveals that alcoholism "is something I came to terms with five years ago, and with daily grace I'm still sober."
Many of us love the buzz we feel after a good workout. But some exercise for hours, day after day, to try to keep hold of that feeling. For Cynthia, a 24-year-old woman from California, exercise became much more than just a way to stay in shape. “I became addicted to the feeling I got after a workout,” she tells The Fix. “I had to get my daily high and make it last as long as I could.” At the peak of her problem, Cynthia was exercising for eight hours a day, and was obsessed with knowing everything about celebrity workouts in particular. “It worked out perfect 'cause I was working in retail in the evenings, so I would get up early and exercise for eight hours before my shift,” Cynthia explains. “I would also buy any magazine I could find that had any mention of a celebrity workout so I could learn about new and unique ways to exercise. Sometimes I would leave Barnes & Noble with over 10 magazines.” Though Cynthia was obsessed with fitness, she wasn't watching her calories, or throwing up her food: “I would eat like a horse just so I could exercise as much as I wanted, so I could that high.”
Dr. Lynn Williams, a clinical psychologist in Florida who specializes in exercise addiction, says dependence on exercise is not that uncommon. “Many studies have demonstrated that exercise can indeed become a dependency for those persons who spend several hours a day devoted to exercise,” she tells The Fix. This behavior can have damaging long-term effects on your body. “Society perceives exercise to always be a positive thing, however, excessive amounts of exercise builds up tolerance to certain hormones and neurotransmitters which then requires more exercise to yield the same physical and psychological effects,” Dr. Williams explains. “The body needs to have time to repair itself because exercise breaks down muscle fibers.” She adds that sometimes people who participate in extreme endurance sports—such as triathletes or marathon runners—will get hooked on the feeling exercise gives them: “They do not hesitate to share that they 'need that daily fix' or they feel 'down or depressed' if they skip a day.”
Although many health professionals are seeing patients with this problem, exercise "addiction" isn't yet listed as a disorder by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Cynthia found it hard to find treatment that focused purely on exercise dependence. “Every place I looked into mainly focused on eating disorders, and I really didn’t have a problem with food,” she explains. “Eventually I got the treatment I needed, and now I only exercise an hour a day, which for me is amazing.” She adds: “I also stay completely away from magazines, certain websites, or anything can entice those obsessive feelings. I feel like I’ve found a good balance.”
Britney Spears' former manager Sam Lufti has denied in court that he ever gave the pop star Adderall or helped fuel her former amphetamine addiction. The allegation was made by Spears' parents Jamie and Lynn Spears, who claim that Lufti manipulated and took advantage of the singer during the peak of her meltdown in 2007, cutting her off from family and drugging her food. Lufti filed a lawsuit in response, claiming the accusations destroyed his career and that he was also never compensated the guaranteed 15% of the pop star's gross monthly earnings, roughly $120,000 a month, as The Fix reported, for being her manager. Lufti told the judge that he has a prescription for Adderall to treat his own ADD, but never gave Spears any of his meds; he claims that she simply abused her own prescription.
Lufti also testified that the singer was a "habitual, frequent and continuous" user of drugs and alcohol, and that he actually made various attempts to save her, including bringing drug-sniffing dogs to her home and flushing a bag of white powder down the toilet. His lawyer Joseph Schleimer alleged in his opening statement last Thursday that not only did Spears OD on amphetamines the night she was strapped to a stretcher and sent to a mental hospital in January 2008, but that her infamous head-shaving incident was an attempt to rid traces of drugs from her hair follicles. Lufti has also fired back at Lynne and Jamie's accusations that he lacked the entertainment industry experience or qualifications to manage Britney, claiming he was the associate producer for a Ben Affleck project and is currently Courtney Love's co-manager. Britney is still under a conservatorship and won't be allowed to appear as a witness at the trial.
As drug cartels continue to hold sway in cities, towns and regions across Mexico, one Mexican Indian community is fighting back. Santa Maria Urapicho, a Purepecha Indian town in western Mexico, has taken the drastic measure of arming residents with pistols and rifles to combat threats from suspected members of the Los Caballeros Templarios drug gang. They even reportedly killed the gang's boss, Mauricio Cuitlahuac Hernandez, last August. A Purepecha community leader, speaking anonymously, says that because the federal and state governments have failed to intervene, Los Caballeros Templarios is now trying to gain control of the town in retaliation. "Our people have never allowed such a situation and now we are on the defensive to be on guard and avoid having anyone in this town harmed," says the leader. "We are waiting for organizations in other places to take an interest in our problems, in our situation; they could give us a hand in whatever form possible." For the time being, residents are keeping weapons in their homes and also setting up barricades in an attempt to control access to the town. Many of the Purepechas who work in other communities have also quit their jobs to stay home and help strengthen their community's defenses.