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HOT TOPICS: Drug and Alcohol Treatment  Heroin

False Positive—The Reality of Workplace Drugs in America


not so positive Photo: Shutterstock

By Ellen Batzel


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Another major consideration in measuring drug use in the workplace is exactly which drugs are being tested for. All current first round urine drug tests screen for a “panel” of drugs. These tests are generally limited to 4 or 5 panels that cover the 20 most common drugs and their derivatives.

Since 2010, only amphetamine, cocaine, codeine, morphine, PCPs, 6- Acetylmorphine (a heroin metabolite) and MDMA (ecstasy), are included in the federal guidelines. Ignored is the explosion of drug types and subtypes over the last 20 years.

It would require at least a dozen panels to detect all the licit and illicit drugs currently available to the American employee. Such extended testing by employers is rare. 

Quest concedes it only tests for those drugs employers request – and many employers seek to save money by limiting the number of drugs on the panels. If every drug was tested for at the federal guidelines level, obviously the 74% figure would not stand up.

Nor does Quest’s report capture data for use/abuse of what’s known as “designer drugs,” which are a growing concern to the U.S. DEA. According to the 2013 National Drug Threat Assessment (NDTA) Summary issued November 18, 2013, “The abuse of synthetic designer drugs— and the increasing availability of these drugs— has emerged as a serious problem in the United States over the past few years.”

There are seven classes of synthetic designer drugs. They are cannabinoids, phenethylamines, phencyclidines or arylcyclohexamines, tryptamines, piperazines, pipradrols or N-Ring systems, and tropane alkaloids. The number and the type of synthetic cannabinoids have increased exponentially since 2008 as evidenced by the number of reports submitted to the National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS).

According to the NFLIS, there were 29,467 synthetic cannabinoid drug reports in 2012, an increase of 1,402 percent from 2009.

Also, the availability of synthetic designer drugs known as “bath salts” rapidly increased between 2010 and 2012, causing severe consequences to abusers. Synthetic cathinones—marketed as “legal alternatives to cocaine or Ecstasy (MDMA)”- emerged in the US designer drug market during 2009.

A quick review of the NFLIS 2012 Annual Report shows soaring use since 2001 of even more drugs that don’t make it to Quest’s DTI. These include clonazepam, buprenorphine and alprazolam, to name a few.

Further clouding the Quest results is the vast expansion of “legal” substances that have found their way into the black market. According to Quest executives, only certain employers ask Quest to test for such widely used painkillers as oxycodone and hydrocodone that are not required to be tested under the federal workplace guidelines. Quest’s DTI reported that, between 2005 and 2012, these “expanded opiate” tests show dramatic increases in positive rates for hydrocodone (an increase of 423%) and oxycodone (an increase of 172%).

Hydrocodone is an ingredient in Vicodin and Norco, and, while widely available in the US, is prohibited for medical use in the UK, the Netherlands, France and Sweden. Oxycodone is an ingredient in OxyContin and Percocet.

Given the very limited number of tests reflected in the DTI, it is impossible to infer from the DTI the degree to which such drug usage is precisely on the rise among the population never tested for them. What is clear is that the Quest press release headline does not account for this unknowable.


In interviews with The Fix, Quest’s executives defended the integrity of its press release, arguing that Quest’s workplace drug test results and the data reported by Quest mirror the results being reported by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) and is in line with trends shown in other studies of drug use/abuse in the U.S.

However, on the same day that Quest issued its press release proclaiming 74% improvement in the American workplace, the U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) released a very different report, showing a very different picture.

The 2013 National Drug Threat Assessment (NDTA) Summary addressed emerging developments in the trafficking and use of primary illicit abuse substances. The Summary also covered the non-medical use of controlled prescription drugs (CPDs).

It reported: “According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), pain relievers are the most common type of CPD taken illicitly and are the CPDs most commonly involved in overdose incidents…Prescription drug abuse continues to be the nation’s fastest growing drug problem and …poses a significant drug threat to the United States…2011 data indicate that 6.1 million people (2.7 percent of the US population) aged 12 or older are current non-medical users of psychotherapeutic drugs.”

Quest’s 2012 data for its upbeat report was similarly based on 6 million drug screens, only using a workplace population vs. the U.S. population at large researched by the NSDUH. Quest acknowledged to The Fix that its data doesn’t include a complete picture of the drugs being used by the U.S workforce similar to the Summary's. The reason? Federal regulations do not require tests for substances found in prescription drugs, and few employers choose to test for these.

Which adds up, of course, to another set of drug users who did not find their way into Quest's data base. 

Asked about testing for the full range of opiates, which are an important segment of the little-tested illicit and licit drug market, Quest representatives reported that its customer purchases of an “expanded opiate” test covered only 80,000 (1.6%) of its workplace testing population of 5,000,000.  These results were  properly incorporated in the DTI data. Separately, Quest has published data showing approximately .9% or 45,000 persons in the general workforce of 5,000,000 tested positive for hydrocodone in 2012.

Hence, out of 80,000 persons subject to the “expanded opiate” drug screen, 45,000 or 56% of the persons so tested, showed positive in 2012 for hydrocodone.

What if the remaining 4,200,000 persons in that population of tested persons had also been tested under an “expanded opiate” platform? Could the results alone potentially be so high as to refute the conclusion that workplace drug use has declined since 1988, even ignoring the other limitations of the Quest study?

* * *

Scratch the surface of drug testing data issued by federal agencies and a different picture of the overall drug usage of the U.S. population emerges.

On the one hand, Quest’s officials in statements to The Fix and presented online in its webinars, insist that Quest’s DTI data mirrors the general trends in the U.S. On the other hand, it would not be incorrect to state that drug use by the U.S. workforce, mirroring the trends in general in the U.S. population, has increased for most drugs available since 1988 and, further, that a not insignificant part of the U.S. workforce is now under the influence of drugs that were not even available in 1988 and are not being monitored by current drug tests.


A reporter and editor from The Fix spent 2.5 hours in telephone interviews with Dr. Barry Sample, Quest’s director of science and technology for its Employer Solutions division, and with Dr. Sample’s supervisor, Bob McCormick, the company’s vice president for Employer Solutions. Additionally, Dr. Sample provided a number of written responses to numerous questions submitted by The Fix.

Both men were helpful and forthcoming about the scientific choices underpinning the Quest study and spelled out some of the very reasonable decisions that had been made toward the integrity of the study. Both also said they supported the official Quest press release which proclaimed itself to be an accurate statement on the U.S. workplace.

At one point in the interview, The Fix representatives notated to both men each of the points in this article refuting their claim that the report was an accurate mirror of the U.S. workforce. The Fix representative then read aloud the headline and opening paragraphs of the Quest press release. It included these statements:

“Today’s Quest Diagnostics Drug Testing Index provides the best evidence to date that the Drug-Free Workplace Act and the public and private initiatives it helped to spur have led to steep declines in drug use among much of the American workforce,” said Laura Shelton, executive director, Drug and Alcohol Testing Industry Association (DATIA). “While more needs to be done to reduce illicit drug use by workers, we should take heart from the tremendous progress employers have made to create safer workplaces for millions of Americans.”

“Key findings from the analysis:

“The positivity rate for the Combined U.S. Workforce declined 74%, from 13.6% in 1988 to 3.5% in 2012.

“The positivity rate for the Federally Mandated, Safety Sensitive Workforce declined by 38%, from 2.6% in 1992 to 1.6% in 2012.

“The positivity rate for the U.S. General Workforce declined by 60%, from 10.3% in 1992 to 4.1% in 2012.

“Despite the declines in overall drug use, the DTI analysis also found that the positivity rate for certain segments of drugs has increased.”

Dr. Sample and Mr. McCormick were then asked how they could possibly justify the press release statements referring to the “Combined U.S. Workforce,” the “Federally Mandated, Safety Sensitive Workforce” and the “U.S. General Workforce” when clearly the Quest data did not apply to the entire workforce and by no means represented all the potential drug usage that was not tested.

“Isn’t there a huge gap between your scientific work and the marketing and public relations of the company?” The Fix asked.

Replied Dr. Sample:

“I can’t speak for how the media outlets represent all the things in our press release. All I can say to you is we have called out all those events and exceptions in our data and in any interviews we have done.”

A Fix representative then pointed out to Dr. Sample that the media was saying exactly what the press release starkly claimed and nothing different. Moreover, that while there were qualifications in the data survey itself (which few media outlets likely read) neither they nor the few qualifications in the press release addressed all the points raised by The Fix. Given all this, did the two men still want to stand behind the press release statement rather than modify it to make it clear that the Quest study and database represent a complex set of assumptions about only the population tested by Quest?

Dr. Sample: “Yes, in its entirety and all the supporting tables and data sets that go with it,….we stand by the data. We believe it to be highly statistically active for those work forces that are doing drug testing. This is the experience they seem to be having and there is a lot of correlation between our data statements and others.”

And were both men aware of the content of the press release and other marketing statements before they were released?

“Yes,” from each of them.

A very different conclusion would be that Quest marketing overrode Quest science with the assistance of both these men.

Confronted with the challenges from The Fix, Mr. McCormick and Dr. Sample noted that drug-place testing programs along with Quest’s DTI are effective “deterrent” tools that steered drug users and abusers away from seeking work at those employers with drug-screening programs.

To whatever degree that may be accurate, it belies the reality that Quest’s marketing is meant to generate even more customers and more drug testing as its role in a drug-industrial-law enforcement and prison complex that thrives on monetizing drug usage. It is a complex that pays far less attention and dollars to altering the underlying reasons why drugs have such a vast role in life-as-we-know-it in the U.S. 

* * * 

Ellen Batzel, J.D., LL.M , and her companies consult on drug testing matters for physicians, clinics, insurers, laboratories, employers, sober living and rehab centers, and technology development companies. Her companies set up drug testing programs primarily in the pain management therapy sector.

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