Smartphones: The 21st Century Narcotic
Smartphones: The 21st Century Narcotic
The folding-chair set has a new addiction to recover from, and an attendant anxiety: cell phone fixation, and nomophobia, or “no mobile phone phobia.” Sound ridiculous? Just as heroin binds to our pleasure-producing receptors and increases dopamine receptors, creating euphoria, and—when the drug runs out—enormous pain, so can a cell phone produce a literal buzz and its temporary loss prompt rage and panic and other symptoms of withdrawal.
The best description I have heard for the effect of heroin is that “it feels like love,” and the vibration of a new text can send tingles that actually signify love. As with all drugs, a certain tolerance is achieved after a while, so that more and more texts become necessary to caress those dopamine receptors into a state of bliss.
The behavioral addiction has compatriots in disorders like compulsive gambling, sex-addiction, overeating and shopping. But we all have cell phones, right? And most of us are glued to them much of the time. So how do we know if our use of a technological advance has become unhealthy enough to warrant the label of “addiction?"
Dr. Elizabeth Waterman, a psychologist at the Morningside Recovery Center, a dual diagnosis rehab in California, runs the first—and only—group for those suffering from compulsive behavior around cell phone use. Dr. Waterman said she first recognized it as a problem when clients began to exhibit erratic behavior after their cell phones were confiscated during the first 10 days of their stay. They invented all sorts of excuses as to why they “had to have” their phones, and after the phones were returned often started showing up late to groups, and becoming non-compliant with rules.
Cell phone use can be considered a problem when it interferes with the quality of daily life, and the ability to make and sustain relationships. “Humans are designed for face-to-face interactions,” Waterman says. New studies are revealing that the reduction in stress that comes from human contact is nullified when texting is the form of communication. The mobile phone is leading to social isolation, disconnectedness and even antisocial behavior.
A researcher at RMIT University in Melbourne has even classified four new afflictions: textaphrenia, textiety, post-traumatic text disorder and binge texting
This, along with other tech addictions, is a phenomenon for the Millennials, the first generation to have grown up with and mastered the new modalities. The proliferation of smartphones has also enabled this addiction to flourish. Dr. Waterman adds, “All of my clients who have phone addiction issues have smartphones. I have not seen any clients with regular cell phones struggling with nomophobia.” James Roberts and Stephen Pirog, of Baylor and Seton Hall Universities, have recently published a study on the subject of cell phone addiction in The Journal of Behavioral Addictions noting that young adults send an average of 109.5 texts per day, and check their phones an additional 60 times
Jennie Carroll, a researcher at RMIT University in Melbourne, has even classified four new afflictions: textaphrenia, textiety, post-traumatic text disorder and binge texting, which variously involve the rapid heartbeat associated with imagining or anticipating a text, the fallout from injuries associated with texting (especially traffic related), “repetitive thumb injury” and the anxiety resulting from a dry spell, which then sends an addict on a texting spree.
For over a decade, it has been noted that cell phones have replaced cigarettes as the defining habit of adolescence. They provide a similar occupation for nervous hands, a tool to cover the self-conscious face and a signifier of maturity. Cigarettes provided the patina of independence that have always been the essential components of cool. There are clear parallels, however, between the emergence of the smartphone and that of the cigarette. Both enjoyed a gleeful, carefree heyday in which our new habit was seen as harmless and ubiquitous; next youth are targeted as the most natural and profitable consumer; rumors begin to spread that perhaps our favorite pastime causes cancer; corporations hedge and dissimulate; it all turns out to be too true; and we try desperately to wean ourselves of our deadly dependence, or at least cut down.
But the cell phone is a symbol of connection, most notably to the teenager’s parents. Young adults text and talk to their begetters many times a day, well into adulthood. They don’t need a period of sharp individuation from their parents, and are defiantly uninterested in rebellion, the trait that defined and drove much of the behavior—and drug use—of both the Baby Boomers and Generation X.
A cell phone isolates you from contact with those surrounding you, such as classmates, bolstering the cocoon of disembodied communication. Each user maintains ultimate control to discontinue connection at the merest hint of discomfort or conflict. This does nothing to further the project of adolescence, much of which is dedicated to comprehensive socialization, learning both to get along and disagree amicably with others. You can’t bum an app, or strike up a conversation while asking someone to light your screen.
It has long been reported that cell phones emit radiation and their use lowers sperm count—and might cause cancer of the head and neck. In 2011 the World Health Organization stated that there are potential cancer risks involved in long-term cell phone use. The technology is too new to know definitively what the dangers are, but enough fear is warranted that the governments of a dozen countries, including France, India, Israel, Australia and the United Kingdom have issued warnings about cell phone use, particularly for children and young people, who are more susceptible to the effects of radiation.